Psychotheraphy / Meditation

Meditation and Psychotherapy:

A Review of the Literature

1. Needleman, J. A Sense of the Cosmos. Dutton: New York, 1977.

2. Smith, J.C. Meditation as Psychotherapy: A Review of the Literature. Psychological Bulletin 82: 558-64, 1975.

3. Murphy, M. & Donovan, S., Eds. A Bibliography of Meditation Theory and Research: 1931-1983. J. Transpersonal Psychology, 15: 181-228, 1983.

4. Needleman, J. On the Road to Self Knowledge. Knopf, New York, 1976.

5. Welwood, J. On Psychotherapy and Meditation. In Awakening the Heart: East-West Approaches to Psychotherapy and the Healing Relationship, J. Welwood, Ed. Shambala, Boston, 1983.

6. Claxton, G., Ed. Beyond Therapy: The Impact of Eastern Religions on Psychological Theory and Practice. Wisdom Publication, London, 1986.

7. Goleman, D. Meditation and Consciousness: An Asian Approach to Mental Health. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 30:41-54, 1976.

8. Taimni, I.K. The Science of Yoga. Quest Books, Wheaton, IL, 1961.

9. Kornfield, J. Living Buddhist Masters. Unity Press, Santa Cruz, CA, 1977.

10. Engler, J. Therapeutic Aims in Psychotherapy and Meditation. In Transformations of Consciousness, K. Wilber, J. Engler, & D. Brown, Eds. Boston: Shambala.

11. Anand, B.K., Chhina, G.S., & Singh, B. Some Aspects of EEG Studies in Yogis. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 13:452-56, 1961.

12. Kasamatsu, A. & Hirai, T. An Electroencephalographic Study on the Zen Meditation (Zazen). Psychologia, 12:205-25, 1969.

13. Deatherage, G. The Clinical Use of Mindfulness Meditation Techniques in Short-term Psychotherapy. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 7:133-43, 1975.

14. Carpenter, J. T. Meditation, Esoteric Traditions-Contributions to Psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 31:394-404, 1977.

15. Shapiro, D.H., & Giber, D. Meditation and Psychotherapeutic Effects: Self-Regulation Strategy and Altered States of Consciousness. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 35:294-302, 1978.

16. Deikman, A. The Observing Self. Beacon Press, Boston, 1982.

17. Vassallo, J. Psychological Perspectives of Buddhism: Implications for Counseling. Counseling and Values, 28:179-191, 1984.

18. Kutz, I., Borysenko, J.Z., & Benson, H. Meditation and Psychotherapy: A Rationale for the Integration of Dynamic Psychotherapy, The Relaxation Response, and Mindfulness Meditation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142:1-8, 1985.

19. Bradwejn, J., Dowdall, M., & Iny, L. Can East and West Meet in Psychoanalysis? American Journal of Psychiatry, 142:1226-27, 1985.

20. Corton, G. Can East and West Meet in Psychoanalysis? American Journal of Psychiatry, 142:1226-27, 1985.

21. Wolman, T. Can East and West Meet in Psychoanalysis? American Journal of Psychiatry, 142:1227-28, 1985.

22. Dubs, G. Psychospiritual Development in Zen Buddhism: A Study of Resistance in Meditation. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 19:19-86, 1987.

23. Bacher, P.G. An Investigation into the Compatibility of Existential-Humanistic Psychotherapy and Buddhist Meditation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42(6-A):2565-66, 1981.

24. Vaughan, F. Mapping the Territory in Search of Common Ground. Yoga Journal, September-October: 47, 1989.

25. Kornfield, J., Ram Dass, & Miyuki, M. Psychological Adjustment is not Liberation. In Awakening the Heart: East-West Approaches to Psychotherapy and the Healing Relationship, J. Welwood, Ed. Boston, Shambala, 1983.

26. Kornfield, J. Even the Best Meditators Have Old Wounds to Heal. Yoga Journal, 88: 46, 1989.

27. Odanjnyk, W.V. Gathering the Light: A Jungian Exploration of Meditation. Quadrant, 21:35-51, 1988.

28. Brooks, J.S., & Scarano, T. Transcendental Meditation in the Treatment of Post-Vietnam Adjustment. Journal of Counsel. and Development, 64: 212-15, 1985.

29. Otis, L.S. If Well-Integrated But Anxious, Try TM. Psychology Today, 7:45-46, 1974.

30. Hjelle, L.A. Transcendental Meditation and Psychological Health. Perceptual Motor Skills, 39:623-28, 1974.

31. Seeman, W., Nidich, D., & Banta, T. Influence of Transcendental Meditation on a Measure of Self-Actualization. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 19(3): 184-87, 1972.

32. Delmonte, M.M. Psychometric Sources and Meditation Practice: A Literature Review. Personality and Individual Differences, 5: 589-563, 1984.

33. Childs, J. The Use of the Transcendental Meditation Program as a Therapy with Juvenile Offenders. Dissertation Abstracts International, 34 (8-A, Pt. 1): 4732-33, 1974.

34. Dice, M.L. The Effectiveness of Meditation on Selected Measures of Self-actualization. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (5-A):2534, 1979.

35. Lesh, T.V. Zen meditation and the Development of Empathy in Counselors. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 10:39-74, 1970.

36. Keefe, T. Meditation and the Psychotherapist. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 45:484-48, 1975.

37. Goleman, D. Meditation as Meta-therapy: Hypotheses Toward a Proposed Fifth State of Consciousness. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 3:1-25, 1971.

38. Boswell, P.C. & Murray, A.J. Effects of Meditation on Psychological and Physiological Measures of Anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47:606-7, 1979.

39. Delmonte, M.M. Biochemical Indices Associated with Meditation Practice: A Literature Review. Neuro-Science and Bio-behavioral Review, 9: 557-561, 1985.

40. Wallace, R.K. Physiological Effects of Transcendental Meditation. Science, 167(926):1751-54, 1970.

41. Allison, J. Respiratory Changes During Transcendental Maditation, Lancet, 1 (7651):883, 1971.

42. Banquet, J.P. EEG and Meditation. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 33:454, 1972.

43. Banquet, J.P. Spectral Analysis of the EEG in Meditation. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 35:143-51, 1973.

44. Glueck, G.C. & Stroebel, C.F. Biofeedback and Meditation in the Treatment of Psychiatric Illnesses. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 16:303-20, 1975.

45. Hebert, R. & Lehman, D. Theta Bursts: An EEG Pattern in Normal Subjects Practicing the Transcendental Meditation Technique. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 42:397-405, 1977.

46. Levander, V.L. Benson, H., Wheeler, R.C., & Wallace, R.K. Increased Forearm Blood Flow During a Wakeful Hypometabolic State. Federation Proceedings, 31:405, 1972.

47. Michaels, R.R., Huber, M.J., & McCann, D.S. Evaluation of Transcendental Meditation as a Method of Reducing Stress. Science, 192(4245):1242, 1976.

48. Wallace, R.K. & Benson, H. The Physiology of Meditation. Scientific American, 226(2):84-90, 1972.

49. Wallace, R.K., Benson, H., & Wilson, A.F. A Wakeful Hypometabolic State. American Journal of Physiology, 221: 795-99, 1971.

50. Westcott, M. Hemispheric Symmetry of the EEG During the Transcendental Meditation Technique. In Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers, Volume I, D.W. Orme-Johnson & J.T. Farrow, Eds. M.E.R.U. Press, New York, 1977.

51. Wolpe, J. Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 1958.

52. Yulie, S., Brahm, G., Charnes, G., et al. The Extinction of Phobic Behavior as a Function of Attention Shifts. Behav. Res. Ther, 12:173-176, 1975.

53. Wilkins, W. Desensitization: Social and Cognitive Factors Underlying the Effectiveness of Wolpe’s Procedure. Psychology Bulletin, 76:311-17, 1971.

54. Boals, G.F. Toward a Cognitive Reconceptualization of Meditation. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 10:143-82, 1978.

55. Klajner, F., Hartman, L.M., & Sobell, M.B. Treatment of Substance Abuse by Relaxation Training: A Review of the Literature. Addictive Behaviors, 9:41-55, 1984.

56. Benson, H. Decreased Alcohol Intake Associated with the Practice of Meditation. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 233:174-177, 1974.

57. Benson, H. The Relaxation Response. New York, Avon Books, 1975.

58. Beary, J.F. & Benson, H. A Simple Pssychophysiologica Technique Which Elicits the Hypometabolic Changes of the Relaxation Response. Psychosomatic Medicine, 36:115-20, 1974.

59. Benson, H., Beary, J.F., & Carol, M.P. The Relaxation Response. Psychiatry, 37:37-46, 1974.

60. Delmonte, M.M. Meditation: Similarities with Hypnoidal States and Hypnosis. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 31(3):24-34, 1984

61. Wallace, R.K. The Physiological Effects of Transcendental Meditation: A Proposed Fourth State of Consciousness. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Physiology Department, University of California, Los Angeles, 1970. Dissertation Abstracts International, 31:4303-13, 1971.

62. Elson, B., Hauri, P. & Cunis, D. Physiological Changes in Yoga Meditation. Psychophysiology, 14:52-57, 1977.

63. Maupin, E. Individual Differences in Response to a Zen Meditation Exercise. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 29:139-45, 1965.

64. Pagano, R.R., Rose, R.M., Stivers, R.M., & Warrensburg, S. Sleep During Transcedental Meditation, Science, 191(4224):308-10, 1976.

65. Ritterstaadt, H. & Schenkluhn, H. Measuring Changes of Temperature During the Practice of Transcendental Meditation. Unpublished report, Max Planck Institute, Germany. Abstracted in D.P Kanellakos & P.C. Ferguson, The Psychobiology of Transcendental Meditation: An Annotated Bibliography. Los Angeles, Maharishi International University, 1973.

66. Younger, J., Adriance, W., & Berger, R. Sleep During Transcendental Meditation. Perceptual Motor Skills, 40:953-54, 1975.

67. White, J. Kundalini, Evolution and Enlightenment. New York, Anchor Books, 1979.

68. Deikman, A. Bimodal Consciousness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 25: 481-489, 1971.

69. Deikman, A. Deautomatization and the Mystic Experience. Psychiatry, 29: 324-88, 1966.

70. Csikszentmihalyi, M. Play and Intrinsic Rewards. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 15:41-63, 1975.

71. Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Csikszentmihalyi, I. (Eds.). Optimal Experience: Psychological Studies of Flow in Consciousness. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1988.

72. Delmonte, M. M. Constructivist View of Meditation. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 41:286-98, 1987.

73. Kelly, G.A. The Psychology of Personal Constructs. New York, W.W. Norton, 1955.

74. Johnson, S.S., & White, G. Self-observation as an Agent of Behavioral Change. Behavior Therapy. 2:488-97, 1971.

75. Shapiro, D.H. & Zifferblatt. Zen Meditation and Behavioral Self-control: Similarities, Differences, and Clinical Applications. American Psychologist, 31:519-532, 1976.

76. Freud, S. Civilization and its Discontents. New York, W.W. Norton, 1930.

77. Alexander, F. Buddhist Training as an Artificial Catatonia. Psychoanalytic Review, 18:129-45, 1931.

78. Masson, J. & Hanly, C. A Critical Examination of the New Narcissism. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 57:49-65, 1976.

79. Lazarus, A. Psychiatric Problems Precipitated by Transcendental Meditation. Psychology Reports, 39:601-602, 1976.

80. Shafii, M. Adaptive and Therapeutic Aspects of Meditation. International Journal of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 2:364-382, 1973a.

81. Shafii, M. Silence in the Service of the Ego: Psychoanalytic Study of Meditation. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 54:431-43, 1973b.

82. Epstein, M. & Lieff, J. Psychiatric Complications of Meditation Practice. In Transformations of Consciousness, K. Wilber, J. Engler, & D.P. Brown, Eds. Boston, Shambala, 1986.

83. Wilber, K. The Atman Project. Quest Books, Wheaton, IL, 1980.

84. Wilber, K., Engler, J., & Brown, D., Eds. Transformations of Consciousness. Shambala, Boston, 1986.

85. Epstein, M. Meditative Transformations of Narcissism. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 18:143-158, 1986.

86. Mahler, M. On the First Three Subphases of the Separation-Individuation Process. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 53:33-38, 1972.

87. Epstein, M. Forms of Emptiness: Psychodynamic, Meditative, and Clinical Perspectives. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 21: 61-71, 1989.

88. Jung C.G. Yoga and the West, Collected Works, Volume 11. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1936.

89. Jung, C.G. The Psychology of Eastern Meditation. Collected Works, Volume 11. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1943.

90. Hillman, J. Peaks and Vales. In On the Way to Self Knowledge, J. Needleman, Ed. A.A. Knopf, New York, 1976.

91. Welwood, J. Reflections on Psychotherapy, Focusing, and Meditation. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 12:127-141, 1980.

92. Russel, E.W. Consciousness and the Unconscious: Eastern Meditative and Western Psychotherapeutic Approaches. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 18: 51-72, 1986.

93. Noble, K.D. Psychological Health and the Experience of Transcendence. The Counseling Psychologist, 15:601-14, 1987.

94. James, W. The Varieties of Religious Experience. New American Library, New York, 1958.

95. Mathes, E.W., Zevon, M.A., Roter, P.M., & Joerger, S.M. Peak Experience Tendencies: Scale Development and Theory Testing. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 22(3):92-108, 1982.

96. Wuthnow, R. Peak Experiences: Some Empirical Tests. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 18(3):59-75, 1978.

97. Greeley, A.M. Ecstasy: A Way of Knowing. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1974.

98. Hood, R.W. Psychological Strength and the Report of Intense Religious Experience. Journal of the Scientific Study of Religion, 14:29-41, 1974.

99. Parry, S.J., & Jones, R.G. Beyond Illusion in the Psychotherapeutic Enterprise. In Beyond Therapy: The Impact of Eastern Religions on Psychological Theory and Practice, G. Claxton, Ed. Wisdom Publications, London, 1986.

100. Walley, M.R. Applications of Buddhism in Mental Health Care. In Claxton, op.cit., 1986.

101. Welwood, J. Personality Structure: Path or Pathology? Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 18, 1986.